Vitamina D em pediatria

Ane Cristina Fayão Almeida, Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida, Ivan Savioli Ferraz

Abstract


A vitamina D (VD) é uma das vitaminas lipossolúveis. Suas principais fontes na natureza são a dieta e
a produção endógena mediada pela exposição à luz solar. Descobertas recentes mostraram que outros
órgãos, que não o rim e o fígado, são também capazes de sintetizar a VD metabolicamente ativa (calcitriol).
A deficiência de vitamina D (DVD) foi descrita há quase 2.000 anos e é classicamente relacionada
às doenças do sistema ósteo-muscular (em especial, raquitismo e osteomalácia). Adicionalmente nos
últimos anos, a DVD tem sido associada à desordens que acometem outros sistemas do organismo,
como, por exemplo, asma e diabetes. Além disso, tem sido observada uma elevação da prevalência da
DVD em todo o mundo, mesmo em países com boas condições de insolação. A forma mais adequada
de prevenção da DVD se dá pela suplementação vitamínica já que não há limites seguros para a
exposição solar. O tratamento da DVD baseia-se, principalmente, na reposição da vitamina e está
indicado nas formas sintomáticas (sintomas ósteo-musculares) da carência. A intoxicação pela VD é
rara e observada em lactentes e crianças jovens que ingerem doses elevadas de VD de forma aguda.
Este artigo de revisão aborda estas e outras questões a respeito da VD, com ênfase especial às
particularidades relacionadas às crianças e aos adolescentes.


Keywords


Colecalciferol. Lactente. Vitamina D.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22565/ijn.v10i4.324

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